The first introduction to psychology usually comes in the form of biology classes. Many biology students already come into class with at least basic understanding of psychology. They understand that their genes determine how their bodies work, how they function and, to a certain extent, how they act or what illnesses they may develop. But very few of these students have an understandable comprehension of what exactly DNA is, where it’s found in the body, why it causes problems, and how it can be manipulated or altered.
In the case of evolution, the genes passed from one generation to the next only need to survive. Genes are nothing more than instructions for doing things. People, as all living things, are programmed through thousands of years of natural selection to engage in behavior that’s survival oriented. The foundation for this programming is that the expression of specific genes that cause specific traits, such as aggressiveness, violence or sexuality. In the case of psychology, the genes that are passed on to us through our parents, grandparents, or other kin will determine such behavior.
Concerning understanding what is happening genetically, we’re still in the era of molecular biology. Within this frame, genes are just packets of information carrying instructions. This is the way humans, plants and animals have been growing for thousands of years. However, in the past 50 years or so, a revolution in the field of psychology has happened known as molecular biology or genomics. Genomics offers a new lens through which we can view the relationships between behavior and genes.
The molecular basis for human and behaviors memory is in fact quite simple – it’s all about the epigenome. The Epigenome is a cellular memory storage which determines whether or not a behavior will be voiced or not. Like all memory storage systems, it contains information that is “programmed” in advance by the genome.
What we now know is that the genetic material that determines behaviour exists in all of us, but in varying quantities. Most of the variations come from the variation in the copies of genes inside the cellular memory storage of the individual. The copy of the gene that determines the behaviour is called the epigome. It’s this particular copy that we call the epigenome.
The significance of the epigenome in psychology and its relationship to individual differences was revealed in a landmark study on twins. For many years, autism research was based upon research on twins. However, it was found that there was substantial heritability (hitability) to behavior that existed between individuals who had identical twins but whose traits were quite different. This study provided the first evidence of the significance of the epigenome in human behaviour and its connection to abnormal behavioral disorders such as autism.
Even though the importance of the Epigenome in psychology was established, many in the psychological area are hesitant to accept its potential as a significant element in mental illness. One reason for this is that it is difficult to define a real genetic sequence or locus that causes a behavioral disorder. Another problem is that there are simply too many genetic differences between individuals to use a single DNA sequence to determine mental illness. Finally, although the research on the Epigenome has been promising, more work needs to be done to determine the role that genetics play in complex diseases like schizophrenia. If this finding holds true, it can be used as a foundation for studying other complicated diseases that have complex genetic components.
If you are interested in learning more about Epigenetics and how it applies to psychology, I strongly advise that you follow the links below. My website discusses the exciting new technologies that are available today to better understand how Epigenetics affects behavior and the susceptibility to disease. You can even hear me speak on my epigenetics and autism blog. My research into Epigenetics is centered on understanding the environmental causes of disease, but I also have been involved in studying the relationship between Epigenetics and Autism. My future articles will also talk about diseases of the mind that can be impacted by Epigenetics.