The first introduction to psychology normally comes in the form of biology classes. Many biology students already come into class with at least basic knowledge of psychology. They understand that their genes determine how their bodies work, how they physically function and, to a certain degree, how they act or what illnesses they might develop. But very few of these students have an understandable comprehension of what exactly DNA is, where it’s found in the body, why it causes problems, and how it can be manipulated or changed.
In the case of evolution, the genes passed from one generation to the next just have to survive. Genes are nothing more than instructions for doing things. Humans, as all living things, are programmed through thousands of years of natural selection to engage in behavior that’s survival oriented. The basis for this programming is the expression of certain genes that cause specific traits, such as aggressiveness, violence or sexuality. In the case of psychology, the genes that are passed on to us through our parents, grandparents, or other kin will determine such behavior.
Concerning understanding what is happening genetically, we’re still in the era of molecular biology. In this frame, genes are just packets of information carrying instructions. This is how humans, plants and animals have been growing for thousands of years. Nevertheless, in the last 50 years or so, a revolution in the field of psychology has occurred known as molecular biology or genomics. Genomics offers a new lens through which we could view the relationships between behavior and genes.
The molecular basis for human and behaviors memory is actually quite simple – it’s all about the epigenome. The Epigenome is a cellular memory storage which determines whether a behavior will be expressed or not. Like all memory storage systems, it contains information that is “programmed” in advance by the genome.
What we now know is that the genetic material that determines behavior exists in all of us, but in varying amounts. Most of the variations come from the variation in the copies of genes inside the mobile memory storage of the person. The copy of the gene which determines the behaviour is known as the epigome. It is this specific copy that we call the epigenome.
The significance of the epigenome in psychology and its relationship to individual differences was revealed in a landmark study on twins. For many years, autism research was based upon research on twins. However, it was found that there was substantial heritability (hitability) to behavior which existed between people who had identical twins but whose traits were very different. This study provided the first evidence of the significance of the epigenome in human behavior and its connection to abnormal behavioral disorders such as autism.
Although the significance of this Epigenome in psychology was established, many in the emotional field are hesitant to accept its potential as a substantial factor in mental illness. One reason for this is that it is hard to define an actual genetic sequence or locus that causes a behavioral disorder. Another issue is that there are simply too many genetic differences between individuals to use a single DNA sequence to determine mental illness. Finally, even though the study on the Epigenome has been promising, more work needs to be done to determine the role that genetics play in complex diseases like schizophrenia. If this finding holds true, it can be used as a foundation for analyzing other complicated diseases that have complex genetic components.
If you are interested in knowing more about Epigenetics and how it applies to psychology, I highly recommend that you follow the links below. My site discusses the exciting new technologies that are available now to better understand how Epigenetics affects behavior and the susceptibility to disease. You can even hear me speak on my epigenetics and autism blog. My research into Epigenetics is focused on understanding the environmental causes of disease, but I have also been involved in studying the relationship between Epigenetics and Autism. My future articles will also discuss diseases of the brain which can be affected by Epigenetics.