The first introduction to psychology usually comes in the form of biology classes. Many biology students already come into class with at least basic knowledge of psychology. They know that their genes determine how their bodies work, how they function and, to a certain extent, how they behave or what illnesses they may develop. But very few of these students have a clear understanding of what exactly DNA is, where it’s found in the body, why it causes problems, and how it can be manipulated or changed.
In the case of evolution, the genes passed from one generation to the next only have to survive. Genes are nothing more than instructions for doing things. People, as all living things, are programmed through thousands of years of natural selection to engage in behavior that is survival oriented. The basis for this programming is the expression of certain genes that cause specific traits, such as aggressiveness, violence or sexuality. In the case of psychology, the genes that are passed on to us through our parents, grandparents, or other kin will determine such behavior.
Concerning understanding what is going on genetically, we are still in the age of molecular biology. In this frame, genes are just packets of information carrying directions. This is how humans, plants and animals have been growing for thousands of years. However, in the past 50 years or so, a revolution in the field of psychology has occurred known as molecular biology or genomics. Genomics provides a new lens through which we could view the relationships between behavior and genes.
The molecular basis for behaviors and human memory is in fact quite simple – it is all about the epigenome. The Epigenome is a cellular memory storage that determines whether or not a behavior is going to be expressed or not. Like all memory storage systems, it contains information that is “programmed” in advance by the genome.
What we now know is that the genetic material that determines behaviour exists in all of us, but in varying quantities. The majority of the variations come from the variation in the copies of genes inside the cellular memory storage of the person. The copy of the gene that determines the behavior is called the epigome. It’s this particular copy that we call the epigenome.
The importance of the epigenome in psychology and its relationship to individual differences has been revealed in a landmark study on twins. For many years, autism research was based upon research on twins. However, it was discovered that there was substantial heritability (hitability) to behavior which existed between individuals who had identical twins but whose traits were quite different. This study provided the first evidence of the significance of the epigenome in human behavior and its connection to abnormal behavioral disorders such as autism.
Even though the significance of the Epigenome in psychology has been established, many in the emotional field are hesitant to accept its potential as a significant element in mental illness. 1 reason for this is it is difficult to define a real genetic sequence or locus that causes a behavioral disorder. Another problem is that there are simply too many genetic differences between people to use a single DNA sequence to determine mental illness. Finally, although the study on the Epigenome has been promising, more work has to be done to find out the role that genetics play in complex diseases like schizophrenia. If this finding holds true, it can be used as a foundation for studying other complex diseases that have complicated genetic components.
If you are interested in learning more about Epigenetics and how it applies to psychology, I highly recommend that you follow the links below. My website discusses the exciting new technologies that are available today to better understand how Epigenetics affects behavior and the susceptibility to disease. You can also hear me speak on my epigenetics and autism blog. My research into Epigenetics is focused on understanding the environmental causes of disease, but I have also been involved in studying the relationship between Epigenetics and Autism. My future posts will also talk about diseases of the mind that can be affected by Epigenetics.